High-Q MgF$_2$ whispering gallery mode resonators for refractometric sensing in aqueous environment


We present our experiments on refractometric sensing with ultrahigh-Q, crystalline, birefringent magnesium fluoride (MgF_2) whispering gallery mode resonators. The difference to fused silica which is most commonly used for sensing experiments is the small refractive index of MgF2 which is very close to that of water. Compared to fused silica this leads to more than 50% longer evanescent fields and a 4.25 times larger sensitivity. Moreover the birefringence amplifies the sensitivity difference between TM and TE type modes which will enhance sensing experiments based on difference frequency measurements. We estimate the performance of our resonators and compare them with fused silica theoretically and present experimental data showing the interferometrically measured evanescent field decay and the sensitivity of mm-sized MgF_2 whispering gallery mode resonators immersed in water. These data show reasonable agreement with the developed theory. Furthermore, we observe stable Q factors in water well above 1 × 10^8.

Optics Express
Florian Sedlmeir
PhD Student

I worked on Resonat Optics.